Saturday: Hili dialogue

January 8, 2022 • 7:00 am

Welcome to the second Caturday of 2022: Saturday, January 8, 2022, when all cats have their Sabbath. (Remember that the Sabbath was made for cats, not cats for the Sabbath.) It’s National English Toffee Day, another celebration of cultural appropriation. It’s also Argyle Day, the day to wear those socks and sweaters, Bubble Bath Day, Earth’s Rotation Day, celebrating the day in 1851 when French physicist Jean-Bernard-Léon Foucault demonstrated Earth’s rotation with a simple pendulum-and-sand experiment, National Man Watcher’s Day, and World Typing Day. Here’s the world’s fastest typist, revealed in a contest:

Today’s Google Doodle, a YouTube animation using Stephen Hawkings‘s robo-voice, is in celebration of what would be his eightieth birthday. Click on the screenshot to watch the 2.5-minute video:

News of the Day:

*The Washington Post reports that all three convicted murderers of Ahmaud Arbery have been sentenced to life in prison, with father and son Greg and Travis McMichael getting no possibility of parole, while their neighbor, William Bryan, has at least the possibility of parole, as he showed some remorse after the murder went down/

Georgia law prescribes a minimum sentence of life in prison for murder, which left the question of parole up to [Judge] Walmsley. Prosecutors did not seek the death penalty. All three men were convicted of felony murder, or committing felonies that caused Arbery’s death; Travis McMichael, now 35, was also convicted of malice murder, which requires intent to kill, but faced the same punishment as his 66-year-old father and 52-year-old Bryan.

You can see a video of the judge’s sentence at the head of the WaPo article.

In Georgia, those serving life sentences for serious violent crimes such as murder are not considered for parole until they have served 30 years.

*Reader Ken produced another news item—in fact, two of them:

Looks like there could be a problem with the guilty verdict from the Ghislaine Maxwell trial, in that one of the jurors failed to disclose that he had been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, even though that specific question was asked of potential jurors, under oath, during the voir dire selection process conducted in the judge’s chambers before trial. See also here.

If this turns out to be the case, Maxwell will be entitled to a new trial.
In response to my query about whether an alternate juror (they have to sit with the whole jury throughout the trial) could go in on new deliberations, Ken said this:
Alternate jurors are generally excused at the end of trial, before jury deliberations begin. Although Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 24(c)(3) gives a federal trial judge discretion to recall an alternate if a sitting juror must be excused during deliberations (a procedure I think is bogus, since there’s no way the other jurors can begin their deliberations anew with the alternate, as they must be instructed to do), there’s absolutely no way in which an alternate could be substituted in after a verdict has been reached.

Still, one way or the other, Maxwell’s getting the silver hammer.

*And Ken on the abortion beat:

South Dakota has enacted a new rule making it more difficult — which is to say, requiring a woman to make three visits to a provider — to get medical abortion pills. This appears to be a direct reaction to a federal Food and Drug Administration decision last month removing the requirement that women seeking abortion pills pick them up in person.

*Reader Nicole’s comment on this Guardian article was unprintable; let us just say it starts with an “m” and ends with an “s!”.  It reports about a new law in England that allows hunters going after game birds to shoot wild birds that endanger game birds being bred for shooting. What sense does that make. Under new peril: carrion crows, jackdaws, magpies and rooks.

A Defra spokesperson said the change was made after gamekeepers asked for more clarity about whether game birds counted as livestock.

The new language makes it clear that wild predatory birds cannot be shot under this licence in order to protect wild game birds that are not dependent on food and shelter from humans, but they can be shot under the licence if they are.

. . . Conservation groups raised concerns that the update could mean an increase in the killing of wild birds.

The RSPB’s head of site conservation policy, Kate Jennings, said: “If this update to the livestock general licence goes beyond a reclassification of terminology and implies that it will lead to an increase in the killing of wild birds to protect game bird interests, then given the nature and climate emergency we find ourselves in, this would be a massive backward step for nature conservation in this country.”

*Pope Francis doesn’t often put his foot in it, but he surely did this time. According to the Guardian, the Pontiff recently said this:

“Today … we see a form of selfishness. We see that some people do not want to have a child. Sometimes they have one, and that’s it, but they have dogs and cats that take the place of children. This may make people laugh but it is a reality.”

Good Lord! Yes, he heads The Church of Breeders, but there are more pet owners than Catholics, and they let the Pope hear about it:

Pet owners have reacted angrily to the comments, made during a general audience at the Vatican. They argue that animals have a lower environmental footprint than children, enable them to lead a life that is different but equally rewarding, and compensate for financial or biological difficulties in having children, rather than directly replacing them.

On social media, people pointed out that the pope himself chose not to have children and said there was hypocrisy in such comments, coming from an institution which has grappled with a legacy of child sexual abuse.

Guardian readers who responded to a call-out asking for their views were similarly critical of the pope’s comments, which were branded “out of touch” and “sexist”.

There’s more select vituperative at the Guardian site.  (h/t Ginger K.)

* Over at the NYT, John McWhorter is back with a provocative column called, “I can’t brook the idea of banning ‘Negro’.” (As I’ve mentioned before, they’d have to ban the name of the long-time estimable organization, “The United Negro College Fund.”)

wrote recently that William Dawson’s “Negro Folk Symphony” is “smashing,” one of the most stirring pieces of classical music I know. But I hear from an experienced conductor that several orchestras have turned down his requests to perform or record it with them, out of wariness of the word “Negro” in its title. In 2020, in the Princeton Summer Journal (part of a summer journalism program for high school students), a student wrote an essay titled “White Teachers: Stop Saying ‘Negro.’” I know of two cases in the past two years of white college professors having complaints filed against them by students for using the word “Negro” in class when quoting older texts. Activists in Vermont have been calling for “Negro Brook,” a stream in Vermont’s Townshend State Park, to be renamed.

Never mind that “Negro” was what Black Americans readily and often proudly called ourselves throughout much of the 20th century, until the preference evolved to “Black” during the civil rights era. And never mind that the issue in these instances isn’t Black people being referred to as “Negroes” today — that would be offensive — but utterances or written reproductions of the word when referring to older texts and titles. The new idea seems to be that saying or writing “Negro” is not simply archaic, but a contemptuous insult in all contexts.

If that’s so, then we’re at a point where, presumably, the filmmakers who titled the well-received James Baldwin documentary “I Am Not Your Negro,” will have to revise the title. The title’s purpose was to elide the N-word in the Baldwin quote that it was based on. A few years ago, the poet Laurie Sheck, who was teaching at The New School in New York, was the subject of a student complaint that she had used the N-word in reference to Baldwin’s actual statement — in a discussion about the implications of the film’s title. The New School investigated and eventually dropped the case, but one wonders if today some students would consider it inappropriate if she had only used the documentary’s bowdlerized title.

And he has a few pungent remarks about the performative nature of equating “Negro” with the “n-word”:

What purpose does it serve to generate this new lexical grievance? I’m not saying we should revert to everyday use of “Negro” — it is indeed out of date. But does Black America need yet another word to take umbrage at and police the usage of? Do we, in Black America, need fellow travelers — sorry, allies — to join us in this new quest, eager to assist in the surveillance out of some misguided sense that this is “doing the work”?

. . . To extend this approach to the antiquated but at one time acceptable word “Negro” amounts to a kind of language policing — recreational, sanctimonious or both — that distracts all of us from real work in the real world. To wit: What do you think Rosa Parks, Bayard Rustin, A. Philip Randolph or Mary McLeod Bethune would have thought about people deeming it social justice to crusade against any instance of the word “Negro” instead of combating actual racism?

*Finally, today’s reported Covid-19 death toll in the U.S. is 835,150, an increase of 1,499 deaths over yesterday’s figure. The reported world death toll is now 5,491,637, an increase of about 7,300 over yesterday’s total.

Stuff that happened on January 8 includes:


The chief was stabbed to death, supposedly while trying to escape. From Wikipedia:

Crazy Horse, even when dying, refused to lie on the white man’s cot. He insisted on being placed on the floor. Armed soldiers stood by until he died. And when he breathed his last, Touch the Clouds, Crazy Horse’s seven-foot-tall Miniconjou friend, pointed to the blanket that covered the chief’s body and said, “This is the lodge of Crazy Horse.”

Hollerith’s sorting machine and one of the punched cards it sorted:

  • 1940 – World War II: Britain introduces food rationing.
  • 1964 – President Lyndon B. Johnson declares a “War on Poverty” in the United States.
  • 1973 – Watergate scandal: The trial of seven men accused of illegal entry into Democratic Party headquarters at Watergate begins.

Can you name the “Watergate Seven”?  Here they are: H. R. HaldemanJohn EhrlichmanJohn N. MitchellCharles ColsonGordon C. StrachanRobert Mardian, and Kenneth Parkinson/

  • 1994 – Russian cosmonaut Valeri Polyakov on Soyuz TM-18 leaves for Mir. He would stay on the space station until March 22, 1995, for a record 437 days in space.
  • 2011 – Sitting US Congresswoman Gabby Giffords is shot in the head along with 18 others in a mass shooting in Tucson, Arizona. Giffords survived the assassination attempt, but six others died, including John Roll, a federal judge.
  • 2016 – Joaquín Guzmán, widely regarded as the world’s most powerful drug trafficker, is recaptured following his escape from a maximum security prison in Mexico.

Eventually El Chapo (“Shorty”: he was 5’6″) was extradited to the U.S., convicted, and is now spending life in prison in the Supermax ADC Florence in Colorado: America’s toughest prison.  He was also ordered to turn over 12.6 billion dollars. Here’s his U.S. Mugshot:

Notables born on this day include:

Wallace in Singapore, 1862, after he was already famous:

  • 1902 – Carl Rogers, American psychologist and academic (d. 1987)
  • 1911 – Gypsy Rose Lee, American actress, dancer, and author (d. 1970)

The Queen of Burlesque:

  • 1926 – Soupy Sales, American comedian and actor (d. 2009)
  • 1935 – Elvis Presley, American singer, guitarist, and actor (d. 1977)
  • 1942 – Stephen Hawking, English physicist and author (d. 2018)

See above for a Google Doodle honoring his achievements.

Krieger, who of course became famous with the Doors, is shown here reprising some of his greatest guitar bits (he co-wrote many of the Doors hits, like “Light My Fire” and “Touch Me”):

  • 1947 – David Bowie, English singer-songwriter, producer, and actor (d. 2016)
  • 1967 – R. Kelly, American singer-songwriter, record producer, and former professional basketball player

Kelly has been found guilty of multiple charges of child trafficking, statutory rape, and other such crimes. He’ll be sentenced on May 4, and it will be life in prison.

Two autocrats:

Those who “passed” on January 8 include:

Here’s a portrait of Giotto by Uccello, painted between 1490 and 1550, after Giotto’s death:

  • 1642 – Galileo Galilei, Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher (b. 1564)

Here’s a portrait of Galileo done in 1636 by Justus Sustermans, when the great man (under house arrest) was still alive:

Part of the patent for the device that made Whitney famous:

Verlaine, dead at 51 from abusing every substance known to the French:

Who remembers Bellows except for his painting “Stag at Sharkey’s”? Yet he was quite famous in his time. Here’s his “Riverside,” painted in 1915:

  • 1941 – Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, English general and founder of the Scout movement (b. 1857)

Meanwhile in Dobrzyn: Hili’s not warm enough, so she demands wood. (She’s the Queen!)

Hili: If the fireplace is going to warm me you will have to carry in more wood.
A: I’m afraid that you are right.
In Polish:
Hili: Jeśli kominek ma mnie ogrzać musisz przynieść więcej drewna.
Ja: Obawiam się, że masz rację.
And a photo of Kulka by Andrzej:

From Not Another Science Cat Page:

About time, too! I’ve been hungering for a tender toddler for a long while!

This could have been a tweet by Richard Dawkins, but wasn’t:

From Stephen Fry:

From Simon, who sent this on Jan. 3, “back to work” day:

Also from Simon, the lovely Nigella (who’s Jewish) Frenchifies the microwave. Simon also gives us some bonus information

It makes me feel a little younger to know that I was born the same week as her.What you probably know is that her father Nigel Lawson was chancellor under Thatcher, in a time of relatively high unemployment.His name is an anagram of “we all sign on” – which if it needs translation is English for applying for unemployment benefits.

Sound up!

From Barry: Can a cat get any stealthier?

From the Auschwitz Memorial, a touching story of sacrifice. Phenol was injected directly into the heart.

Tweets from Matthew. Look at this poor schlemiel!

THREE stealth cats, all wiggling their butts:

A vociferous and chirping cat:

Finally, one of Matthew’s beloved optical illusions:

35 thoughts on “Saturday: Hili dialogue

  1. And when he breathed his last, Touch the Clouds, Crazy Horse’s seven-foot-tall Miniconjou friend, pointed to the blanket that covered the chief’s body and said, “This is the lodge of Crazy Horse.”

    Dang, at seven-foot even, Touch the Clouds may have been taller still than Big Chief Bromden, the Indian who euthanized the lobotomized R.P. McMurphy.

    1. I was thinking that had to be apocryphal, so looked it up. He was 6’9″…not quite 7′, but damn tall! Will Sampson, aka Chief Bromden was 6’7″, so Touch the Clouds was still taller.

      Meeting truly tall people is always memorable. I once worked at a Tower Video in L.A. and in comes this guy who had to duck coming through the door. He handed me his return video and the VHS tape in his hand looked like me holding a cassette tape. When he left one of my coworkers asked: “You know who that was?” I didn’t. “Kevin Peter Hall”…when I still looked confused, he said, “the dude that played the Predator”. Of course, I had seen the movie, and thought the whole scene was very cool. Hall was 7′ 2.5″.

      Sadly, he died from AIDS-related pneumonia when he was only 35. He was in a car accident and his injuries required surgery; he contracted the virus via a blood transfusion. Talk about bad luck. 🙁

  2. Per Wikipedia there were two separate groups that were referred to as the “Watergate Seven.” The individuals listed in the post were not the first group. The first group’s trial started on January 8, 1973. It included the notorious G. Gordon Libby. The first group consisted of:

    • G. Gordon Liddy — former FBI agent and general counsel for the Committee to Re-elect the President; convicted of burglary, conspiracy, and wiretapping; sentenced to 6 years and 8 months in prison; served 4½ years in prison.
    • E. Howard Hunt — CIA operative and leader of the White House Plumbers; convicted of burglary, conspiracy, and wiretapping; sentenced to 2½ to 8 years in prison; served 33 months in prison.
    • Bernard Barker — member of the Plumbers, FBI agent and alleged CIA undercover operative; pled guilty to wiretapping, planting electronic surveillance equipment, and theft of documents, and later to burglary; sentenced to 18 months to 6 years in prison for the first charge; reversed his plea and served 18 months in prison; later sentenced to 2½ to 6 years in prison for the second charge; served 1 additional year in prison.
    • Virgilio Gonzalez — Cuban refugee and locksmith; convicted of conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping; sentenced to 1 to 4 years in prison; served 13 months in prison.
    • Eugenio Martínez — Cuban exile and CIA undercover operative; convicted of conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping; sentenced to 1 to 4 years in prison; served 15 months in prison; pardoned by Ronald Reagan.
    • James W. McCord Jr. — former CIA officer and FBI agent; convicted on eight counts of conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping; sentenced to 25 years in prison, reduced to 1 to 5 years in prison after he implicated others in the plot; served only 4 months.
    • Frank Sturgis — CIA undercover operative and guerrilla trainer, military serviceman; convicted of conspiracy, burglary, and wiretapping, and separately on a charge of transporting stolen cars to Mexico; sentenced to 1 to 4 years in prison for Watergate (the sentence for the transport charge was folded into the Watergate sentence, due to his cooperation); served 14 months in prison.

    The second group, which you mention, were indicted in 1974 and were Nixon advisors involved in the cover-up of the break-in at Democratic National Headquarters. The first group was involved directly in the break-in

    1. If my memory is working at all – the 5 who actually did the break in are listed here. Some of them testified in the hearings. I remember McCord.

      1. Yeah, McCord flipped from the get-go. Eventually, so did Hunt, after Judge Sirica slammed him with an eight-year bid.

  3. World Typing Day reminded me of the time Cortez Peters, Jr. visited my high school. He was the world’s fastest typist, always using a manual Underwood typewriter. He never bothered with electric typewriters of the time because he was so fast that the keys jammed. He could type well over 200 words a minute without errors. Peters’ father, formerly the world’s fastest typist at 100 wpm without errors, started a successful business school and wrote several books that taught his method. I took a year of typing because I needed an extra credit due to taking a non-credited art class. On a good day, I could type 35-40 words a minute if I skipped typing numbers or special punctuation marks.

  4. Can you name the “Watergave [sic] Seven”?

    Whoa, the names in the list in the post above comprise the second group of seven — the reprobates from Nixon’s inner circle.

    The original Watergate Seven comprised the two White House whackos running the operation hands-on. G. Gordon Liddy and E. Howard Hunt, plus the five burglars caught in flagrante delicto inside the DNC office at the Watergate Complex — former CIA agent James McCord and the four Miami Cubans: Virgilio Gonzalez, Eugenio Martinez, Bernard Baker, and Frank Sturgis.

  5. In other news, the James Webb Space Telescope has passed thru many of its more challenging deployment steps. The heat shield is fully deployed, as is the secondary mirror. The big primary mirror is more than halfway through unfolding. Yea!
    The main things to do, once the big mirror is unfolded, will be a number of test jiggerings of the primary mirror segments, and a careful maneuver to put itself on course for insertion into the L2 point.
    Its fun (but nail biting) to check in each day to check on how its doing.

  6. Verlaine, dead at 51 from abusing every substance known to the French …

    He and Rimbaud and Baudelaire and the others weren’t known as The Decadents for nothing.

    1. Late nights all alone with a test tube, oh oh oh oh.

      Has anyone noticed that the rhythm of the verse (Joan was quizzical…) is the same as the flute riff in the Men at Work song “Down Under”? – – . . – . . . . . . – (Probably many other pieces as well, but none come to mind right now.)

      1. …And then there’s the intro to Steely Dan’s “Rikki Don’t Lose That Number”, an homage to Horace Silver’s “Song For My Father”.

      2. It’s kookaburra song rhythm* in Down Under, so, maybe that was deliberately or accidentally being channeled by McCartney. Interesting…

        *Kookaburra sits in an old gum tree-o
        Merry merry king of the bush is he-o…

        1. Wasn’t there a lawsuit involving Men at Work and the kookaburra song? But that would apply to the melody; the rhythm is not distinctive enough to be protected; not sure if any are.

          1. I’m not aware of any lawsuit. I think it’s a folk song of sorts, and may be in the public domain. The flute part in Down Under was actually the rhythm and the tune, which was clever, given the subject of the song. I always liked that little add-in (for which Greg Ham had to learn to play the flute!).

            1. Yep, there was one:

              In some sense, the best a writer can achieve is writing something which people think is a folk song. The late Martin Allcock, who played with Fairport Convention for a while, once said that he saw a couple of buskers playing traditional Irish tunes, then playing one of his.

              On another occasion, after playing a real traditional song, Simon Nicol when playing with Fairport Convention said of the song “Crazy Man Michael” (written by former Fairport musicians Richard Thompson and Dave Swarbrick back when both were in the band) : “This next song is not a traditional song. Well, it is now.”

    2. One aspect of the Epstein-Maxwell affair that creeps me out particularly is that had the events occurred in Canada, all the witnesses would have been of legal age. The age of consent was raised to the present 16 from 14 in 2008. (Consent is today deemed not to occur if there are power imbalances but these have to be well-defined like teacher-student, not merely rich-poor.) Now, I grant there could have been criminal behaviour in the organized procuring and inducement especially given the age and power of Epstein and his friends. But media would not have been able use the hook, “under-aged girls”, every time they ran the story.

      1. Most of Europe has 14, 15, 16 as the age of consent. If both are under 14, they aren’t legally responsible anyway, and an age difference of two years or whatever is also OK at that age. Millions of teenagers 12–16 or whatever have sex. Nothing wrong with that. What is wrong is coercion, and that is independent of age. Of course, in the Epstein—Maxwell case, there seems to have been little if any real consent. So it would actually be good to concentrate on the lack of consent, and not the tabloid-style “underage girls”.

        1. An equally good question is whether there was any real coercion. Since there is, apparently, a degree of consent that includes “little”, it is fair to ask if any perceived coercion, which is the yang to consent’s yin, was enough to be “real”. I suspect the prosecution would have decided they had no realistic prospect of a conviction, certainly not of a conviction carrying life sentences, had the women been consenting adults. They would have had to have proved a lot more facts that happened 25 years ago. Even the facts they did prove were shaky, it seems.

          Ghislaine Maxwell must be thanking her lucky stars that a dishonest juror has admitted he lied in a material way that influenced her conviction. Why on earth did he come forward? You can’t make this stuff up.

          Remember in the song it’s Maxwell who wields the hammer. She may yet.

          1. Maybe I’m misunderstanding, but either they were adults or not and either they were consenting or not. The two categories are largely orthogonal (assuming, as here, that we are talking about sexually developed, post-puberty women/girls, and not about children where it is a good policy to say that there can never be consenting sex with an adult). Of course, the sentence might depend on what laws were broken and thus depend on the age of consent. But the facts of the case don’t matter whether they were a year younger than the age of consent or a year older than the age of consent. It would be bizarre if the burden of proof had to be higher if the people were a year older or whatever.

            1. The case absolutely would turn on the fact of whether these young women were over or under the age of consent, even a minute on either side of the stroke of midnight. Simply, if the person is below the age of consent, the prosecution just has to prove the sexual acts happened, then off to prison you go. If the person is above the age of consent, the prosecution has to prove both that the event happened and that consent was not obtained. (Or. alternatively, that some other law like procuring for the purpose of prostitution had been broken.) The second proposition is much harder to prove than the first especially in an ancient case where memories fade or are shaped by later life events. Remember the prosecution in the “of-age” counterfactual is relying totally on the women’s memories of what happened and how they felt about it at the time. In fact, the defence could well concede that the sex acts happened, but claim they were consensual, just like in any sexual assault case. This option isn’t available to the defence, obviously, if the witnesses are under age.

              In the Maxwell case as it happened in real life, the prosecution didn’t have to make its non-consent case except to satisfy the jury that all the young women were under the legal age of 18 at the time. We don’t know to what extent, if any, the women were under duress or unduly influenced/intimidated because the prosecution didn’t have to bring any evidence of that. At the time it might have seemed to the participants like rebellious adventure (however unwise in retrospect) for all we know.

              Living in Canada, even though the story creeps me out, I can’t see the justice in sending someone to prison for life for hooking a guy up with women who, here, would have been of age to consent at the time this all occurred. Even if the guy was a pig and his runner had undue influence over them. The creepiness is why I do think it’s a good thing that we raised the consent age to 16, though.

              1. My point is that if something occurred one minute earlier it is life imprisonment and if not maybe they get off is absurd.

                Yes, it is a good idea to have an age of consent below which it should be obvious that no consent is possible. But 18? Seriously?

  7. I’m glad Jerry excerpted from and commented on McWhorter’s piece today. I read the piece earlier this morning and have been meditating on it since. I agree with McWhorter’s opinion about the value of preserving the word “Negro” in scholarly historical and literary contexts while declining to use it in everyday parlance. As a librarian, I still mourn the renaming of the Library of Congress Subject Heading, “Negro Spirituals,” to “African American Spirituals.”
    As a musician, I’m glad McWhorter mentioned Dawson’s Negro Folk Symphony. I’d also recommend William Grant Still’s Symphony No. 1, which he titled “Afro-American.” This term is also outdated. I can’t brook its banning either.
    So, despite the strong pull of the Doors songs Jerry listed, my earworm is now a melody from Grant Still.

    1. ‘I agree with McWhorter’s opinion about the value of preserving the word “Negro” in scholarly historical and literary contexts while declining to use it in everyday parlance.’

      It reasonably seems that the 1959 film “Orfeu Negro” (in Portuguese) is encompassed in the above contexts. May one also utter the name of the film when viewing/discussing it with others in one’s abode (re: “everyday parlance”)?

  8. The Democratic Party of the United States is organized.

    Brings to mind the Will Rogers quote: “I don’t belong to any organized political party. I’m a Democrat”.

  9. Kelly has been found guilty of multiple charges of child trafficking, statutory rape, and other such crimes.

    Just finished “Surviving R Kelly” on Netflix. Disturbing not just in what he does, but in his evolution from ‘likes teenagers’ to full-blown cult leader type manipulator.

  10. In IBM and the Holocaust Edwin Black documents how the Third Reich was dependent on Holerith machines for determining who was at least 1/16 Jewish and how the machines were supported by IBM in NY during the war.

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