by Greg Mayer
A correspondent who visited Hawaii in December, 2019, sends in the following from Haleiwa, on the north shore of Oahu. I believe these are from Waimea Valley, where there is a botanical garden.
First up is a Hawaiian Gallinule, Gallinula galeata sandvicensis. This is an endemic subspecies of a widespread species. On remote islands, land and freshwater birds, like the gallinule, have higher levels of endemism than sea or shore birds. The latter are accustomed to flying great distances, and thus have higher levels of interbreeding among populations, which retards differentiation.
Remote islands are also very vulnerable to establishment by introduced species, and here’s a combo. That’s a giant day gecko, Phelsuma madagascariensis, from Madagascar, on top of a sign for a neotropical orchid, Myrmecophila tibicinis. The orchid has a mutualistic relationship with ants. (Its generic name means “ant lover”.) The gecko, brought in with the pet trade, is well established in Oahu. The orchid may not be established, but just a specimen in the botanical garden.
And finally, high up on a palm, is an anole. This is probably Anolis sagrei. This species was introduced from the U.S. mainland. It was introduced to the U.S. mainland from Cuba. So it’s on the second leg of its travels!